Political cartoon, shows a woman fishing

Highlighting the main events of the Grand Rapids water scandal, this section provides context and historical background for the rest of the project.

Read about The Water Scandal »


Political cartoon, men being breaking open a jail window

Two stories of neighbors encapsulate the difficulties of reform in a small city as they found themselves at the heart of the scandal's prosecution.

Read Neighbors »


Google Map of Grand Rapids downtown

Taking an expanded view of the Grand Rapids elite's urban world, this section suggests further difficulties facing reform in Grand Rapids.

Explore Neighborhoods »


Abstract picture of nodes connected

Much like its physical proximity, the Grand Rapids elite intertwined themselves in a number of important ways. These personal relationships and social networks contributed to creating an atmosphere of questionable reform efforts.

Explore Networks »

Methodology and Data

Explore the methodology that I used in creating my visualizations and discover how to replicate them yourself. Archival citations and other information can also be found here.

Go to Methodology and Data »

The Rise and Fall of the American Small City

This project is part of an ongoing dissertation project called The Rise and Fall of the American Small City that examines life in small cities during the Gilded Age and Progressive Era.