Highlighting the main events of the Grand Rapids water scandal, this section provides context and historical background for the rest of the project.
Two stories of neighbors encapsulate the difficulties of reform in a small city as they found themselves at the heart of the scandal's prosecution.
Taking an expanded view of the Grand Rapids elite's urban world, this section suggests further difficulties facing reform in Grand Rapids.
Much like its physical proximity, the Grand Rapids elite intertwined themselves in a number of important ways. These personal relationships and social networks contributed to creating an atmosphere of questionable reform efforts.
Methodology and Data
Explore the methodology that I used in creating my visualizations and discover how to replicate them yourself. Archival citations and other information can also be found here.
The Rise and Fall of the American Small City
This project is part of an ongoing dissertation project called The Rise and Fall of the American Small City that examines life in small cities during the Gilded Age and Progressive Era.