The maps below illustrate the Grand Rapids elite's physical concentration in 1902, while the Water Scandal was still unfolding. Their close quarters became problematic as the battle for the direction of reform began.

Grand Rapids Elite

This composite map demonstrates the concentration of Grand Rapids's economic, political, and social elite within the city's second and third wards, east of the Grand River and the rest of the city's downtown. Pay special attention to Fulton street's residents as the street that divided the second and third wards was home to many prominent Grand Rapidians.

Banks and Bankers

Showing the concentration of economic power, this map specifically examines the homes of the city's bankers. Individually highlighting specific banks will allow you to see the connected nature of boards of directors as many of the elite had connections to multiple banks.

Women's Clubs

Focusing on the leadership of the city's women's literary clubs, this map shows a clustering of prominent women in certain neighborhoods. Note in particular, the Ladies Literary Club, the city's most prestigious women's club.

Water Scandal

This map highlights the main actors within the bribery scheme and prosectution of the water scandal. Like the other maps, the scandal and its prosecution were concentrated in the city's elite neighborhoods.