Networks

Like Grand Rapids's physical layout, the city's social networks could place leaders in socially awkward positions as they struggled with reform. For example, the Grand Rapids Social Welfare Association highlights the potential repercussions of reform's lasting influence. In 1914, the organization's leadership comprised many main players of the previous decade's water scandal. Members included: Charles Ward, prosecutor of the grand jury and other water scandal cases, Clay Hollister, a member of the Civic Club and whose family was a target of Democrats during the grand jury, Christian Gallmeyer, a Republican alderman that lead the charge for the grand jury, and Mrs. William F. McKnight, whose husband, a Democrat, escaped charges for bribing a witness during the trial of Lant Salsbury. Below are a sampling of social connections of the Grand Rapids elite that demonstrate the complex social environment in which reform developed.

Banks and Bankers, 1902

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Explore the members of Grand Rapids banks' boards of directors in this visualization. The membership information was collected from R. L. Polk & Co.'s Grand Rapids city directory published in 1902, which can be found on Google Books. The colors were determined by modularity class and size by eigenvector centrality. The layout is Fruchterman Reingold.

Women's Clubs, 1914

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Examine the role of women in the Grand Rapids elite through this visualization of the Grand Rapids Federation of Women's Clubs's leadership. The membership information was collected from a 1914 directory at the Grand Rapids Public Library's Federation of Women's Literary Clubs records and cleaned with Open Refine. The colors were determined by modularity class and size by eigenvector centrality. The layout is Yifan Hu Proportional.

Social Welfare Organizations, 1914

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This visualization allows you to explore the connections of Grand Rapids's social welfare organizations. The membership information was collected from a 1914 directory at the Grand Rapids Public Library's Chamber of Commerce collection and cleaned with Open Refine. The colors were determined by modularity class and size by eigenvector centrality. The layout is Yifan Hu Proportional.

Grand Rapids Elite (Combination), 1914

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Combining data from the Social Welfare Organizations and Federation of Women's Clubs's visualizations, this compilation gives a broader view of the city's elite. The colors were determined by modularity class and size by eigenvector centrality. The layout is Yifan Hu.